MICROCEPHALY– A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL HEREDITARY DISORDER WITH EMERGING DRIFTS OF ZIKV
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare, congenital, neurological condition with atavistic phenotype, usually distinguished by reduction in occipito-frontal head circumference strongly correlated with decreased cognitive capacity, simplified gyral cortical pattern and hypo-plastic skull vault. Being a genetically heterogeneous disorder, sixteen genes have been identified yet to be associated with MCPH. Most of the genes have intracellular function in cell cycle progression, thus perturbation in these genes leads to the formation of apparently normal but small brain. Recently, one more progressive cause of microcephaly ZIKV has been discovered. ZIKV infection pointers cell-cycle seizure, apoptosis, and inhibition of NPC differentiation and proliferation, deregulation of microcephaly causing genes, thus resulting in cortical weakening and microcephaly. Besides identification of this disorder, strong emphasis is needed in its prevention and treatment.