WATER QUALITY MAPPING OF DISTRICT CHINIOT, PAKISTAN BY USING GIS
Water quality and scarcity is the major issue of today’s world. Current study was conducted in ten selected areas of district Chiniot. River Chenab flows through the district Chiniot and is the major river of the area. Due to shortage of water in river Chenab. most of the farmers are using well water for the sake of irrigation that is a burden on the ground water resources. In order to monitor water quality of the wells, physiochemical analysis (pH, Electrical conductivity, Total alkalinity, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulfate, Sodium, Potassium and oxidation reduction potential) of water was carried out. Data base was established according to the agricultural parameters and piper diagram. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping was also carried out to point out the water quality of sampling sites. Comparison of Hydrochemical faces of diamond of piper diagram indicates that maximum sodium chloride type compounds (47.22%) are found, Alkaline earth exceeds alkalis (52.77%), strong acids exceeds weak acids (88.89%). Maximum cations are Sodium and Potassium type (47.22%). Maximum anions are no dominant type (2.22%) with equal distribution of Sulfate and Bicarbonate type (11.11%) and least distribution of Chloride type. Those areas having higher concentration of sodium salts in water will be suitable for salt tolerant varieties of wheat, rice, sugar cane and beans. Current study will be useful to monitor water quality for agricultural purposes in order to cope with the scarcity of water in future as continuous extraction of water will result in lowering of water table, depletion of water and degradation of water quality if these wells remained unmonitored. GIS mapping will be helpful to search aquifers with good quality water. Moreover, selection of crops according to the quality of water will save economy, time and other resources.