ARSENIC AND LEAD LEVEL FROM UPPER TO LOWER INDUS BASIN OF PAKISTAN
Sixty four water samples were chemically analyzed from upper and lower Indus Basin plain with special reference to Arsenic and Lead contamination. It is shown that many springs and nallas originated from snow covered peaks and glaciers have untraceable amount of Arsenic and silt. However, amount of lead was found in each and every water samples. Dominant forest species, shrub and herb on water sampling site were also presented. The water samples were collected from lower to upper Indus Basin with 37 to 5579 meter elevation range. Among environmental variables the pH ranged from 6.53 to 8.73, dissolve oxygen (Do) from 0-1.9 mg/l with 0-102.2% dissolved oxygen. The oxygen reduction potential range was from 11 to 165.4, conductivity 41 to 519 microsiemens per centimeter (ms/cm) total dissolved solid (TDS) 6 to 260, salinity 0.02 to 8.66% and Pb were from 0.079 to 2.53 ?g/L. Though in some areas Arsenic was absent but in some locations its values exceeded to 400 ?g/L. The overall results showed that Arsenic and lead level increase dramatically from upper to lower Indus Basin and 40 times greater than internationally accepted level. The increase of arsenic and lead in Indus River is hazardous for human health. Therefore, possible control of these toxic metals and proper policies are suggested for this important River of Pakistan.