PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIDIARRHEAL POTENTIAL OF BRIDELIA VERRUCOSA HAINES
The study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical, antibacterial and antidiarrheal potential of the ethanloic bark and leaf extract of Bridelia verrucosa Haines. The results of phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, tannins, steroid and saponins in both extracts. The bark extract of B. verrucosa showed the higher amount of flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids as compared to leaf extract. Agar-well diffusion protocol was used to evaluate the anti-bacterial potential of B. verrucosa against Gram Positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia). The bark extract exhibited better antibacterial potential i.e.23 ±0.65mm, 18± 0.8mm against Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli and the lowest zone i.e. 11±0.3 mm was observed against Klebsiella pneumonia. The streptomycin and tetracycline were used as standard drugs to compare the results. The standard antibiotic drug i.e. tetracycline showed best results as compared to streptomycin. The Antidiarrheal activity was evaluated through Castor-oil induced diarrhea. Significant reduction in the excretion of diarrheal drop was produced by the treatment extract of 350 and 550 mg/kg. B. verrucosa leaves showed satisfactory results with 350 mg/kg dose against diarrhea and least potential with 550 mg/kg. Whereas the both doses of bark presents significant reduction in diarrhea with both doses with competence to positive control loperamide. The significant results of Percentage inhibition of wet feces were observed in bark extract as 26.3%, 45%, 59.5% and 64.2% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours. The results revealed that bark extract of B. verrucosa showed higher potential towards Anti-microbial and Anti-diarrheal activities as compared to leaf extract.