EFFECT OF RAMADAN FASTING ON SERUM INSULIN AND FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE IN ADULT OBESE AND OVERWEIGHT POPULATION OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes caused by Ramadan fasting on the body weight, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity index in overweight, obese, and non-obese adult subjects of both the sexes. A total of 55 Muslims adult female volunteers and 55 male volunteers whose ages ranged between 20 and 40 years, were folat first day of Ramadan and during the last week of Ramadan. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was analyzed by GOD-PAP method, Serum insulin were estimated with the help of human ELISA kit and insulin sensitivity indices were analyzed through QUICKI. Overweight and obese male subjects were observed with significant decrease in body mass index as compared to normal weight subjects (P<0.001; P<0.001), reduction in BMI was also noted in overweight and obese female subjects (P<0.001; P<0.001). Fasting blood glucose exhibited significant decrease in pre and post over weight and obese males (P<0.001; P<0.001), same pattern were experienced among overweight and obese females (P<0.001; P<0.001). Serum insulin levels in pre and post overweight males were significantly reduced (P<0.05; P<0.05), similarly, pre and post Ramadan obese males were also observed with significantly reduced serum insulin (P<0.001; P<0.01). In female group serum insulin level reduced significantly in post overweight (P<0.01), Pre obese (P<0.001) and post obese (P<0.001) towards the end of the Ramadan. A significant improvement was also observed in insulin sensitivity of overweight and obese group of both the genders. Pre and post overweight males showed significantly increased insulin sensitivity (P<0.05; P<0.01) respectively. Pre and post obese males showed highly significant results of insulin sensitivity index (P<0.001; P<0.001). Likewise, pre and post overweight (P<0.05; P<0.05), pre and post-obese females (P<0.001; P<0.001) showed significant improvement in their insulin sensitivity indices. Ramadan fasting in overweight and obese subjects as compared to non-obese has a beneficial effect on blood glucose homeostasis. Result of our study also shows that serum insulin levels as well as BMI significantly decreased. Dietary and caloric control during Ramadan is very helpful to promote insulin sensitivity in obese people.